Important Dates Concerning the Public Domain

The following dates apply to the USA only. We're concentrating on the USA as this has the most creative works available in the Public Domain. We'll come to the UK later on.

• DECEMBER 31st 1922

• 1st JANUARY 1923 – 31st DECEMBER 1963

• IMPORTANT NUMBERS: 28, 67 (or 95)

Anything published in the USA before 1923 ie up to December. 31st 1922, is in the public domain – period! Whatever it is, be it book, photo, painting, music * it does not matter – it's in the Public Domain which means you can do whatever you want with it.

* Actually only sheet music or song lyrics can be in the Public Domain in the USA – ALL music in the form of sound recordings are under copyright until at least 2067. However there is a way to download certain recordings and we'll cover those in another post which will also cover where to find them.

31st Jan. 1923 – 31st Dec. 1963 – Anything published between these two dates automatically came with a 28 year copyright. However if the copyright was NOT renewed in the 28th year then the work fell into the Public Domain. If it was renewed then the copyright extended for another 67 years or 95 years from first being published.

Example: If a work was published in 1930 and the copyright was renewed in 1958 then the copyright would not run out until 2025 (1958 + 67 years = 2025) The other calculation is to add 95 onto the year of publication which is in this case means 1930 + 95 = 2025. It just depends on whichever method you feel comfortable with.

Appropriately between 85% – 93% of all creative works published between these two dates NEVER had the copyright renewed. This means there is a vast ocean of in the available material for you to access and use in whichever way you want.

What about works published from 1964 onwards you might ask? Well from 1964 – 1977 copyright is automatically 95 years from date of publication which means it'll be 2059 before any of that material is in the Public Domain so it really is not relevant if, like me, you're in your 50's already !

This also applies to works published from 1978 onwards despite the length of time of copyright varies between 70 – 120 years or 75 years after the death of the author / creator. Again this is irrelevant for our purposes.

IMPORTANT – In the UK creative works have a copyright until the end of the 70th year after the death of the author / creator. Note that it's the end of the 70th year – not the 70th anniversary of the author's death. So if the author died in JUNE 1930 their work would not be in the Public Domain in the UK until the 1st January 2001

Now it's also important to note that even if the work was published and in the Public Domain in one country it does not mean it's in the Public Domain in another. A good example here is PETER PAN written by JM Barrie.

This was written in 1920 and published in the UK then. It was also published in the USA in 1922 so technically it was in the Public Domain in the USA but NOT in the UK as the author was still alive! In fact he did not die until 1937 so Peter Pan would not normally come into the public domain in the UK until 2008.

However an amendment to the 1988 Copyright Designs and Patents Act in the UK was passed to allow the copyright for Peter Pan to run indefinitely in the UK with all royalties being associated to the trustees of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London, for as long as the hospital exists.

The book could have been sold by anyone if they stayed in the USA without fear of violation of copyright but not so in the UK.

So you now know what dates to look for when searching for a product that's in the Public Domain. They are very important so keep them close for reference.

It's also important to note that there is a lot of information published that does not have copyright. This applications to government publications as these are produced for the general public and paid for out of public funds and so can be used by the general public in any legal way.

There are easy ways to find out if a product is in the Public Domain, especially books which are the most popular product searched for, but we'll talk about those in another post.

Web Hosting Aspects That Might Affect SEO

Does Web Hosting Have an Effect on SEO?

There are 3 web hosting factors that influence where your website gets ranked. Here is an in-depth look into them:

Uptime / Downtime

Downtime is the length of time when your website can not be accessed because of the problems involving the server. It is likely for search engine spiders to visit your website many times daily. However, if they visit when your site is experiencing downtime, they will record it as inaccessible and will go on to the next site. When this happens over and over again, your website will be considered unreliable and your rankings may be reduced. Unreliable sites are not displayed highly in results of search engine since this will put them in a bad light when the searchers click on results they give but can not access the site. Even if it is 99% uptime, your website will not be accessible for a total of 7 hours over a span of 1 month. If possible, you would want your website to be 100% accessible at all times. However, websites are expected to experience some kind of downtime even if these have expensive web hosting plans. Yet, there are web hosts that offer and guarantee 99.95% uptime, so accept no less than this.

Speed

In general, search engines do not divulge the factors that belong to their algorithms. Yet, in 2010, Google openly revealed that the speed upon which a page loads is only one among those more than 200 factors. This is certainly a very small percentage (of only 0.5%) effect on your rankings. Neverheless, it is still worthwhile to take it into consideration. The loading speeds for your web pages are as follows:

When you have a lower than average loading speed, you should not unnecessarily blame your web host. The slow down may be caused by the coding and configuration of your website. However, if you are confident that your site's technical set-up has been optimized in the best possible way, but you still get poor loading times, it is about time to request your web host to transfer your site to a different server. Nowadays, it is quite common for a website to share server resources with numerous other sites. As expected, more sites on a server use up more resources, which results to slower loading times. When you transfer your website to a private / dedicated server or one that is not too busy, you will see quick improvement in page load speeds.

Location

Aside from several different factors like content and backlinks among others, in order to show the most significant search results, search engines evaluate the website's location for deciding where to position it in their rankings. For instance, when the people who search are located in the UK, search engines will typically display sites located in UK higher in their search results. To find out where your website is located, they use some indicators like the IP address of your site, which is allotted to your site based on the location of the server where it is hosted. Therefore, when your web hosting company has severs in the UK, this could cause higher rankings for your site when UK based people search for the keywords you have chosen.

Online Learning Glossary – Real Meanings For Real People

Have you been looking into online learning as a training or education medium for your workplace or classroom? Or are you wondering about a possible career in the design and development of online learning, but you are not sure what all the terms mean?

When you're new to a field, it's important to get the terms right so you can understand what others are saying and so you can about this topic. This article provides an introduction and glossary to the terms associated with online learning. After making this list, even I was surprised at how many terms there were!

AUDIO CONFERENCING : Audio conferencing reference to a connection between three or more locations that involves a voice-only connection. This can be done via telephone or via the computer. When the audio conference is done between computers over the Internet, it uses a technology known as VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol).

ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING : When learners participate in an online learning course at different times, it is known as asynchronous learning. This may also be called eLearning or web-based training (WBT). Asynchronous learning allows learners to go through a course at their own pace and on their own schedule.

BLENDED LEARNING : Blended learning is an instructional approach that includes a combination of online and in-person learning activities. For example, students can complete online self-paced assignments by a certain date and then meet on-site or online for additional learning activities.

COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING (CBT) : CBT referees to any type of course that runs on a computer, either on a CD, on a person's hard drive or on the Internet. The distinguishing point is that computer-based training does not involve an instructor or facilitator who is physically present. Now that most computer-based training occurs via the Internet, the term is used infrequently. More common terms are online learning, eLearning and Web-based training (WBT).

COURSEWARE: Courseware refers to any instructional software that is delivered on a computer.

DISTANCE EDUCATION or DISTANCE LEARNING : Distance Education / Learning occurs when students and their instructors are in different geographical locations and the instruction occurs on an electronic device, such as a computer or mobile phone. The learning can occur in a synchronous environment, in which all participants are connected at the same time or in an asynchronous environment, when participants are engaged in learning at different times.

eLEARNING: eLearning (short for electronic learning) is an umbrella term that referes to all types of training, education and instruction that occurs on a digital medium, like a computer or mobile phone.

HYBRID LEARNING: See blended learning.

INFORMAL LEARNING: Informal learning occurs when people have a need to know something. They set their own learning objectives and acquire knowledge, skills and information in their own ways. This could be through asking questions, observing experts, practicing and conversing. It's the kind of natural learning humans do outside of a structured environment.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN: Instructional design involves the identification of the knowledge, information, and skill gaps of a particular group of people and creating or selecting learning experiences that close this gap. Instructional designers base their learning decisions on cognitive psychology, instructional theory and best practices.

INSTRUCTOR LED TRAINING (ILT): ILT typically refers to providing instruction in a classroom environment where the instructor and learners are together at the same time and in the same physical location.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER: An instructional designer practices the craft and science of instructional design. This person identifies the needs of a targeted audience and determines the best approaches for meeting the audience's needs. It could involve designing and writing online learning courses as well as writing the manuals needed for Instructor-Led Training. Some instructional designers also create graphics and use authoring systems to produce online courses.

INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA: Interactive multimedia allows learners to provide input to an online course and receive feedback as a result of the input. The input may consist of a mouse click or drag, gestures, voice commands, touching an input screen, text entry and live interactions with connected participants.

MOBILE LEARNING: Learning that takes place on a hand-held device, such as a mobile phone, that can take place anytime and anywhere.

MULTIMEDIA: Multimedia reflect to the presentation of information and instruction through a combination of graphics, audio, text, or video. Multimedia instruction is often interactive.

ONLINE LEARNING: The term online learning is often used synonymously with eLearning. It is an umbrella term that includes any type of learning implemented on a computer and usually over the Internet.

SELF-PACED LEARNING: Self-paced learning returns to the type of instruction that allows a person to control the flow of the courseware. It implies the learning environment is asynchronous.

SOCIAL MEDIA LEARNING: Social media learning refer to the acquisition of information and skills through social technologies that allow people to collaborate, converse, provide input, create content and share it. Examples of social media learning can occur through online social networking platforms, blogs and microblogs (like Twitter), online talk radio and wikis.

STREAMING MEDIA: Streaming media referers to video and audio that is downloaded to a computer from the Internet as a continuous stream of data and is played as it reaches the destination computer.

SYNCHRONOUS LEARNING: When learners participate in an online learning course at the same time but in different locations, it is known as synchronous learning. Synchronous learning allows learners to interact with the instructor and other participants. This is done through software that creates a virtual classroom.

VIDEO CONFERENCING: Video conferencing refer to the use of video technology (both hardware and software) to create a virtual meeting between two or more people in different physical locations. Participants can see and hear each other through this technology.

VIRTUAL CLASSROOM: The virtual classroom reflects to a digital classroom learning environment that takes place over the Internet rather than in a physical classroom. It is implemented through software that allows an instructor and students to interact.

WEBINAR: A webinar is a seminar or workshop in which the facilitator and participants view the same screen at the same time. Usually the webinar has an audio component that the facilitator controls and functionality that allows participants to chat by entering text, answering guns, raising their hands and asking questions.

WEB-BASED TRAINING (WBT): WBT reiterates all types of digital instruction in which the learning material is presented via the Internet.